I Love Amazons - An On-Going Journey!

wrench13

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'Boats, I have to remember to not read your posts while at work. It's not good when a senior manager gets teary eyed. Thank you for the poem.
 

Terry57

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Steven, this is a fantastic thread, thank you so much for taking the time to post it.
That poem has me sobbing, it is so spot on.
 

AmyMyBlueFront

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Jonesy a Goffins 'Too who had to be rehomed :-(

And a Normal Grey Cockatiel named BB who came home with me on 5/20/2016.
Geez Steven...:02: You have me running to Amy and scooping her out of her house and hugging/loving on her.
I read EVERY line..as if it were her saying those things to me.

She was never a rehome. I was/am her dad since she was just a babe. And I keep telling her,she WILL be mine,til the day I am no longer here,or vise verse.
Your poem hit home hard Steven..reading some of the stories that get posted here. Some that turn out awesome ( Texs' Bella for one) and others that have failed ( My Jonesy for one)

makes a parront think REAL hard...


Jim
 

Allee

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Thank you for the beautiful poem, Steven. So beautiful and so true, a couple of my dearest feathered friends could have written it from experience. Very thought provoking.
 

Anansi

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Steven, thank you very much for this thread. It is both extremely informative and deeply moving. Very much a must read for amazon parronts new and experienced alike.

And you're right. Much of what you have posted is applicable to parrots in general.

Ah, and that poem. Beautiful.
 
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SailBoat

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The vast number of Amazons that have shared our home (Okay, Took Over) have come to us suffering years of neglect and commonly stored in grossly undersized cages with like under sized perches. This has resulted in the group as a whole have foot problems.

This reoccurring problem is the foundation for this next segment: Getting to the Foot of the Problem. Since it is based around a medical discussions, it is rated as: Can be Read Near Anywhere!

Enjoy!
 
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SailBoat

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Getting to the Foot of the Problem
By: Steven (SailBoat), 2016

It truly amazes me that Companion Parrots can spend nearly their entire life on their feet. The average modern Human spends, at most, several hours each day on their feet, while the average ‘kept’ Amazon spends 99.3% of each day and night on their feet. With that level of demand placed on the pads of their claws, it would only be fair on our part, to assure they have a large and varied selection of perches to choose from.

The Avian Vet Community, its supporting experts and long time Parrot Owners, have long ago recommended moving to larger perch sizes for Amazons. Today, a ‘minimum’ size perch would be 1-1/2” (38 mm) and then varying in both size and shape, up and over 3” (75 mm) in diameter using a broad selection of different natural wood perches. Parrots need to have a large selection of different size perches to choose from within and on their cage(s), play stand(s) and tee-stand(s).

A concrete perch should never be used ‘if’ your Amazon has developed foot problems, like thin/redden pads, as this type of perch will only increase the seriousness of the problem. In addition, this type of perch should never be placed in a location, which would encourage roosting. Concrete perches are best used in front of the feeding and water dishes to aid in the trimming of their nails and cleaning and shaping of their beaks.

The goal of moving your Amazon to larger perch diameters with greater variations and choices is to lessen or forestall degradation of the leg/claw structure. If your Amazon has foot problems, you should already be working with your Avian Certified /Qualified Veterinarian. It is important to note that not all Avian Qualified Veterinarians have experience with older parrots and their more specialized needs.

That is not to say that foot problems are limited to older Amazons. Spending too many years on too small and similar sized round dowel or perches can result in foot problems much earlier than would normally be expected. If your Veterinarian is not familiar with the health problems of older and/or special needs Parrots, please assure that they at least have a sound body of resource experts to call upon.

With re-homed and rescue Parrots, their history and age are rarely known. However, the wear on their claws is rarely hidden. Amazon’s that have spent too many years on too small and similar sized perches have very telling wear patterns to their pads, degrading of the muscles near the nails and/or the onset of arthritis, far too early for their sometimes ‘estimated’ age. It is very important to remember that Parrots are predominantly ‘left-footed;’ therefore it is common to see the beginning of problems in the left leg and claw. Other early signs are Night Falls and/or ‘predominant roosting’ using both legs instead of only one. A detailed examination of the leg/claw structure is a necessary part of any re-homed, rescue and/or older Parrot’s yearly physical examination.

Why are larger diameter perches healthier for Amazons to roost on? The answer is found in the structure of a Parrot’s leg and claw, which is designed to allow it to catch and hold prey and/or other food sources, much like a hand. This adaptation forces greater weight (load) on the rear-facing Digits (toes) as the diameter of the perch becomes smaller. Although, the adaptation allows the Parrot to maintain a tight grasp on a food source and smaller perches, at the same time, it increases the load on the rear pads just under and behind the connection (somewhat like a wrist) with the Tarsometatarsus bone. The smaller the diameter of a perch, the greater the load on the rear Digits and more specify their bone segments and pads nearest the joint with the Tarsometatarsus. With time, the skin thins as the pad structure crushes resulting in damaged pads, which presents pink/red in color. In addition, the natural action of roosting places the parrot’s body lower; this in turn lowers the angle in which the Tarsometatarsus and Digits join, increasing the weight on the rear Digits nearest the joint. As the diameter of the perch increases, the weight shifts slightly forward reducing the load on the rear pads under the joint, which supports the use of larger perches.

A surprising point of interest (concern?) has developed with the advent of square metal bar now commonplace in the construction of birdcages and stands. When an Amazon perches on the square bar of the cage, the rear Digits carry none of the weight! The rear Digits fall along the back surface of the square bar creating a 90-degree angle at the apex of the front and rear Digits. There exists no research on the long-term effects of Parrots perching ‘solely’ on narrow, square metal bar or narrow square-cut wood perches. From a structural standpoint, this would simply move all the weight to the front Digits, shifting the effected area from the rear pads nearest the joint, to the front pads closer to the joint. The implication would be that the front pads would degrade quicker, since they would be carrying 100% of the parrot’s weight.

The leg and claw of an Amazon is formed around a bone structure. That bone structure, plus its muscle mass and skin defines the physical size/dimension of the leg and claw. Any change in the physical size of this structure is therefore limited to one or all three components, but primarily a change in the muscle mass and/or skin. More commonly, this structure is affected by swelling (enlargement) or stiffening (limited motion) of the muscle and skin resulting from problems like; sores, cuts, infections, infestation, and arthritis (not all possibilities listed), and can also be seriously effected by underlying physical problems, the effects of toxin and chemical exposure including heavy metals and poisons, ailments like gout, neurological disorders and age progression. Arthritis will degrade bone, which is clearly a permanent change in the appearance and flexibility of the leg and claw. Although rare, the leg/claw structure can also be affected by muscle spasms.

Continues as part of the Post below
 
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SailBoat

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Continuation of: Getting to the Foot of the Problem:


If your Amazon has already developed problems with its pads and claws, the important thing is to provide greater surface area to rest the claw upon. This is when a wider, flatter surface maybe needed (thin/redden pad application). For our Amazon’s, I use 2-1/2” (63 mm) wood flooring plank, cut to length, the tongue and grove cut-off and all four edges cut at 45 degrees, then sanded smooth on all surfaces. This application allows a wider surfaces area for the pads to rest upon, reducing the load on the thin areas, yet still allows the claw’s nails to close over the front and rear edge for stability. A large selection of other varying sizes and type of natural wood perches are still kept available. Parrots, which are larger or smaller then Amazons would require either a larger or smaller flat surface. Taking the time to observe your Parrot perching /roosting will provide a clearer determination of its specific needs. Observations are required from all four sides (front, back, left and right) and for each Digit, on each Claw.


For a more seriously affected Amazon, we would use a very soft and warm covered perch using a wide (4+” (100+ mm)) ‘old style’ stairway handrail top (found at specialty millwright shops). The selection of a cloth wrapping is very specific to the Parrot’s likings and varies widely from white terrycloth hand towels to high-end cloth table toweling of very specific colors and patterns. Our Cleo (now past) would only perch on autumn colors in a checkerboard pattern table towel. Never Cut Corners with your Special Needs Parrots! The cloth toweling is sized left –to- right for the perch, then tightly wrapped and safety pinned (on the underside) into place. This attachment style should never be used around more active Parrots! The covered perch provides a slight contour front –to- back, very wide resting (balancing) surface, and the towel assures a comfortable and non-demanding gripping surface for the nails, plus a warmer surface needed with arthritis.

There is another covering, which can be used on a broad cross-section of perches. Your Veterinarian’s office will call it; Vet Wrapping, it is also referred to as Athletic Wrap and is commonly available in retail stores such as Walgreen’s, Wal-Mart’s, etc. This flexible wrap will not adhere to feathers, fur, skin, etc., but only to itself. NOTE: This type of wrap should be a standard component in your Avian Medical Kit. It makes an excellent perch wrap as increasing the number of over-wraps can increase this wrap thickness. It comes in a wide range of colors and sizes. As with the towels, color choice is based solely on what your parrot prefers. As the number of over-wraps is increased, the cushiness is increased, and therefore less irritating to your Parrots sensitive pads and leg/claw structure. As with cloth toweling, the wrapping needs to be changed regularly to maintain a clean perch.

Taking the precaution now, by changing to larger and more varied natural wood perches will lessen the likelihood of your Amazon developing leg and claw problems.

If you have or know of someone who has a Special Needs Parrot, I strongly recommend an Internet Word Search using ‘special needs parrots –or- special needs birds.’ There are vast resources available, please use them!


NOTE: Parrots are very successful in hiding their illness; one of the clearest insights to the onset of an illness can be seen in a sudden, rapid, or substantial change in its behavior, manor, activity level or change in its eating pattern. Any indication that your Parrot maybe sick must be treated as if you’re Amazon is very sick. Seeing your Avian Vet ASAP will likely save your Amazon’s Life!



Amazon’s Have More Fun!

Sources: The Complete Pet Bird Owner’s Handbook (New Edition), Gary A. Gallerstein D.V.M, and The Amazona Society - Online Group
 

GaleriaGila

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Great lessons, Steven!
Beautiful poem, for any kind of bird.
Okay, I'll keep the Rbird another 20 years, but then I'm reconsidering.
 

Kentuckienne

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As requested, here is a picture of Gus the blue & gold macaw on the new perch suggested by SailBoat. The perch is about 3" in diameter where he's sitting. He's small for his breed, not quite 900 grams, and has a misshapen spine which seems to make it difficult for him to perch comfortably and securely. Thanks 'Boat, it's just what the doctor ordered.

kentuckienne-albums-gus-picture17261-image.jpg
 
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SailBoat

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As requested, here is a picture of Gus the blue & gold macaw on the new perch suggested by SailBoat. The perch is about 3" in diameter where he's sitting. He's small for his breed, not quite 900 grams, and has a misshapen spine which seems to make it difficult for him to perch comfortably and securely. Thanks 'Boat, it's just what the doctor ordered.

kentuckienne-albums-gus-picture17261-image.jpg

Thank-you, for Posting this Photo! When I saw it as part of your Thread, I was so impressed with how well it presented the placement of a Parrot's leg, foot and claws on a perch, I knew it would be a prefect example for this specific Post. Again, Thank-You!

Regarding the Photo: Please note that the entire base of the MAC's foot rests in a near balance arc with each pad carrying near the same amount of pressure. Also, as you look further down the perch, you will also see the natural variations of the surface of the perch. This natural variation provides very slight differences. As a result, as the Parrot moves either left or right on the perch, the natural variation will result in very minor changes in the amount of pressure on each pad. This duplicates natural perching, which the lower leg, foot and pads are designed. The same size dowel perch would not be able to duplicate those variation and result, over time, in failure points on the Parrot's pads!
 

Kiwibird

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Interesting discussion about the feet. Kiwi has a wide variety of perches (and things he perches on that aren't really perches per-se). For some reason he seems to prefer the smaller diameter ones for playing/hanging out, though he sleeps on the widest one.
 
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SailBoat

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Interesting discussion about the feet. Kiwi has a wide variety of perches (and things he perches on that aren't really perches per-se). For some reason he seems to prefer the smaller diameter ones for playing/hanging out, though he sleeps on the widest one.


Thanks, and that is why it is so important to observe one's Parrot over the first few months prior to get a feeling what they like and not!

Okay, stop messing with my old eyes! When I first saw your Post, I was like: Who's That! Everything all right now, but you had me for a moment or two! :D
 
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Re-Fledging an Adult Parrot


All of the Amazons that have come to us have been from mildly to seriously Wing Trimmed, non-fliers. Our most recent member had been seriously trimmed and as the story went; the family believed that after the loss of their Parent, they could rehome the Amazon quicker if he was not flighted. This Amazon had been a long time flier and just went from there to the status of a Dropped Rock! After three separate surgeries of his rump to close splits cause by his attempts to fly, he had began to feather pluck his rump.

We have been long time believers in Flighted Adult Amazons and after nearly a year, our DYH Amazon had enough wing feathers to begin the process of Re-Fledging him!

This standard problem is the foundation for this next segment: Re-Fledging an Adult Parrot. It is rated: Can be Read Near Anywhere!


Although, I have several variations on subject of training an Adult Amazon to fly, I have always enjoyed the following writing on this subject by EB Cravens.
 
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Re-Fledging an Adult Parrot
Author: EB Cravens – 2006
Provided by: Steven (SailBoat) with permission of the Author.


Re-fledging: The How’s and Why’s of Teaching Adult Parrots to Fly

For years in the World of Parrot keeping, there have been numerous unimaginative Parrot Breeders who insisted upon clipping the wings of their new Fledgling Parrots before the Parrots could develop true flight skills. Many of us own or have owned such Psittacines; and it is not difficult to observe the affects of such naïve treatment. Mentally and physically, these Parrots are forced to live under a handicap, some for the whole of their lives.

The re-fledging of adult Parrots is desirable in order that they may recoup at least a portion of the confidence, savvy, and athleticism denied them by a premature wing trim. Parrots that have satisfactory flying skill are safer, fitter, and happier than their untrained, grounded cohorts. Here then, is how we go about the challenging process of re-fledging…

An older Parrot that was never properly fledged will often be seen begging to be picked up by an Owner from a mere 12” (305 mm) away from the hand. He or she maybe terrified of taking flight because of a series of crash landing mishaps that caused bumps or bruises or other unnoticeable pains. It will most likely be overweight, under exercised, and weak of the strength in feet, legs, hips that is required to make abrupt, sure landings. In order to calm its fears, the Parrot must be taught the proper way to flap its wings and brake with all its bulk, throw-out its feet, look down to a precise spot, and touch down gently enough to avoid discomfort or hurt. Re-fledging Adult Parrots is all about Landing Training!

We begin by exercising the Parrot twice or thrice daily with a series of up and down motions while the Parrot is perched on the hand or a stick. Object here is to get the Psittacine to begin serious flapping with wings both to build-up chest muscles and to accustom it to feeling it’s own weight supported by wing flapping (uplift). Obviously a full set, or near full set of primary flight feathers is necessary for lengthy and powerful flight, but even when the Parrot is partially clipped (4 to 6 primary feathers on each wing) this flap training can begin. Make sure that the Parrot does not let go and take off in a flight that ends in a crash, as this will be a setback to confident progress.

Once a Parrot begins to recognize the moments when its wings start taking the weight of its bulk, we can move on to Landing Training. For this, we choose a very soft surface free from injury possibilities—the master bed is a good spot. The Psittacine is picked up gently and briskly from the surface of the bed with two hands on either side of its body, and dropped onto the bed from a height of about six to eight inches (150 - 205 mm). We shout ‘WHEEE’ to give the semblance of a fun game and to signal the Parrot when it is going to be released.

This procedure can be done from the finger or hand perch, but many Parrots tend to hold on tightly and will not attempt to fly the short inches (mm) to the bed. Larger Parrots or those reticent to throw-out their wings in proper landing technique will have to be Flap-Exercised on the finger even dropping the hand all the way to the bed surface to get them used to Wing Braking Form. Then pick them up and drop them from slightly higher, say 10 to 12 inches (255 – 305 mm) -- just enough to get them to throw out their wings, extend their feet and brake to a soft plop on the bed. Once they realize that there is no danger of bumps or bruises, it should become facile to get them to play the Landing Game. Proper form is the key here, not flying forward at all. Further practice leads to 24” (610 mm) drops, then three feet (1 meter), etc. When they get the hang of it, we are ready to move on to a more solid landing site.

At this point we do not try to fly to a perch or a hard object, as the Parrot is still clumsy and could miss and injure it self. A large soft blanket or towel on top of its cage, a soft couch back, or a large weighted basket with a handle, which can easily be grasped by toenails when landing are three possible choices. Baskets also have the advantage of being easily recognizable and can be placed around the room. (This is what we use with devil-may-care natural fledglings that have little fear of anything while learning to fly around!) Let the Parrot perch on them and explore them first. Then again cry ‘WHEEE’ and gently force the Parrot to fly to the new perch site.

After some weeks (or months with bulkier, out-of-shape Parrots) of experience, the Adult Psittacine should begin learning to make instantaneous airborne decisions about where it wishes to land, choosing the spot, braking and thrusting out its feet and coming to rest exactly where it wishes. Voila, we are on our way to changing the Parrot’s life forever. Full flying skill comes with the ability to change direction sharply, turn right and left, fly up from the floor, drop down from a high perch to the ground, come to the Owner’s hand on call, fly when bath wet or in the brisk wind of an outdoor aviary, and land amidst leafy branches and smaller bouncier twigs and ropes.

Owners will normally see a dramatic increase in the agility, confidence, stance and build of their Adult Parrots after six months or so of Re-fledging Training. Serious feather pickers have been known to give up the habit and regain their ‘youthful fledgling’ trust and self-assurance in their captive environments.
 
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SailBoat

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Continuation from above!


Frightful strangers and objects often lose their dread. The Parrot can now fly back to its cage or perch when the Owner sends it ‘up’ or ‘off.’ In uncountable ways, we now find ourselves keeping complete Avian Parrots, not just the willfully crippled ones, which have never known what it is to take off and land safely and securely.

We have often Fledged Psittacines with the two or three outer primary (air cutting) feathers trimmed on their wings, since they were still molting in or are species with too much speed for the indoor room that was available. Parrots can learn to soar and maneuver and land in perfect control with a few less feathers for lift; it only makes the flapping a bit more brisk and ups the level of aerobic exercise in even the short ten and twenty-foot (3 and 7 meter) flights. Progressive, gradual wing trimming may be accomplished once the bird has learned all necessary skills and is beginning to pick-up more speed. That is up to individual Owners and the way they wish to keep their Adult Parrots.

Wing trimming should always start at the front of the wing, never behind where the rounder softer primaries and secondaries are critical for landing and control. For breeding Parrots, which have been re-fledged, it is a significant gain to their all-round well being and will decrease chances of the Hen running into any dangerous egg laying crises due to inadequate physical conditioning.


Author: EB Cravens is a noted writer with several Avian books and numerous articles within highly recognized Avian Publications. There are few Aviculturists who are praised worldwide and EB Cravens is “one of the finest and highest respected American Parrot Breeders, an Avian luminary” and a true groundbreaker with in the World of Parrots both in breeding and behavior studies. His development and practice of the naturalistic method of Parrot keeping and approach to breeding, which includes Human interaction from breeding season preparation through fledging results in highly socialized, fully-fledged parrots that are highly sought after with in the community of his peers. His monthly writings presented in his ‘Bird Keeping Naturally’ is a must read for any individual who is serious about providing the very best environment for their Parrots.



Steven (SailBoat) Comments: EB has long been a contributing member to the UK (and past US) Amazon Societies. His works are well known Worldwide and is commonly found providing presentations to National and International Avian Groups!

Regarding this Article: Please assure that your Amazon has developed the ability to create lift prior to starting Landing Training. This lift should be noticeable to you as your Amazon flaps his wings while riding on your finger i.e. his flapping in fact lifts your hand!

As part of Wing Trimming, always remember to cut away from the Parrots body and never toward the body! NOTE: There are differences regarding the type of Wing Trimming. EB always, with all Parrots, cuts the outer feathers and than inward. I believe that with Heavy Body Parrots like Amazons that it is better to cut from the inside out, leaving the Secondary feathers and the outer air cutting feathers in place. This type of Wing Cut is called a Presentation (or Show) Cut.
 
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As part of the prior discussion, we looked at Re-Fledging an Adult Amazon. But what if your Amazon just sits in the back of the cage next to the food bowl and has no interest in flying, let alone interacting with you. Now What? Interestingly, this leads us into this next discussion: Re-Starting a Shutdown Amazon.

With the extensive interest in Parrots, individuals of the Parrot Forums could find this topic beyond belief. Interaction with the Parrots in our life is in fact central to our life and a Parrot that has long ago been left to store in the back corner of a back room of a home is just unbelievable to us. However, it is far more common than we would like to believe.

Enjoy this next journey as we awaken the Shutdown Amazon!
 
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Re-Starting a Shutdown Amazon!
By: Steven (SailBoat), November 2016

Getting older Amazons to be more active is not an easy task. The group that is even more difficult is those who have spent the majority of their life (if not all) in tiny cages on a single, dowel perch. The combination of moderate-to-serious foot problems, a stalled metabolic rate, excessive or at a starvation weight, all of which presents real physical and medical challenges. In addition, this group has commonly been starved of any mental stimulation. Then add extremely poor diet and the likelihood of fatty liver disease and/or other diseases of the neglected and it’s a tough place to start from.

The first place to start is at the Avian Veterinarian’s office with an ‘extensive’ evaluation of the Amazon’s health. Since most of this group is sourced from re-homing, drop-offs, devastating rescues, and the leftovers from breeding farms; an extensive stool, blood, DNA testing and physical examination can easily run 400 to 600 USD. Knowing the Amazon’s medical condition will at least provide a foundation to work from. Sadly, many from this group will have limited opportunities to expand their activity level documented by their medical evaluation; The Parrot is just too ill for much more than a sedimentary remainder of its life. That does not mean that we give-up on them, only that we adjust our expectations.

The next step is diet. The results found in the medical evaluation will provide guidelines as to what must be added and what must be seriously reduced, if not eliminated from the Parrot’s diet. Once established, the new diet is then built around a solid healthy base. As part of prior articles, I have provided the foundation for a solid healthy base diet. As part of any weight reduction or addition program, a gram scale is a central component and early morning daily recordings are critical. Since food has a high interest factor for Amazons, it presents is an effective tool for increasing the activity level of most Amazon. Being creative regarding the placement and effort required to find and extract it will re-activate the foraging instinct and its resulting activities. Note, use multiple locations, but leaving the original bowl in place until you are certain that the parrot has found and is using two or more of the new locations. At first, placement of food will need to be overtly obvious, based on the medical condition or general lack of activity of your Amazon.

Stimulating mental activity is the foundation to stimulating physical activity. An Amazon who has sat for days, upon weeks, upon months, upon years, shutdown mentally is not going to all-of-a-sudden ‘Pop-Up’ and become active one day just because the door was left open or weird stuff (toys) showed up in the cage. It takes one-on-one, direct interaction to re-start mental activities. The same intensive one-on-one activity that we will bestow on Human babies and baby Amazons in their first eighteen months of life is the same tool for opening this group of Amazons to the abundance of the World around them. At the same time, it is also the key for re-developing and enhancing the ‘trust bonds’ that have been just as seriously neglected. I continue to be surprised and refreshed by the deep want for simple social interaction and attention shown by these Throw Away Parrots.

Physical activities, like mental activities require that one-on-one involvement. Those who really care will get in there and be active with their Amazons. Depending on everyone’s physical health, a little more activity is added every couple of weeks targeting the capabilities of all parties. In general, most physical activities are pretty boring, which is why it is so important for mental interaction to be part of the activity. When you can turn physical activities into fun, being boring simply goes away!

On going, vocal and physical displays of proud excitement during and upon completion of ‘any’ activities plays to the ‘Reaction Junky’ roots of Amazons. So, Get Up and Get In There, and Have Fun Doing It! It will be healthily for everyone!

What happens, if nothing happens after the first week or month? Adjust your time frame! It is very possible that the Parrot has been waiting for years and may have seen short-term efforts in the past that all too soon returned to (if luckily) a daily change of the water and food bowls. By keeping your Amazon in the action (busy) areas of your home and a part of your life will support your efforts. Modern cages, designed for larger Parrots like Amazons, have wheels, take advantage of them and roll your Amazon along with you.

The point; by keeping interactions elevated, increased mental activity is far more likely. Gains measured in multiple months are far more realistic. Once activity begins, new or enhanced interacts become more common, as do the rewards.

Savor the small victories; each tiny step is growth toward a much better life for both of you!
 
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SailBoat

SailBoat

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Jul 10, 2015
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Help My Amazon is Falling Apart!!!

I had originally wrote this article for The Amazona Society’s Quarterly publication in the early Fall of 2006. That year, not unlike the year 2011, and now again this year (2016), saw the majoring of our Amazons in the Great White North molding heavier than the previous year. Since, I am now providing this to the Parrot Forum and specify, the Amazon Forum and with our healthy Amazons providing more then what may seem as their fair share of collectables (feathers), I provide the following for your enjoyment. Your comments regarding this discussion and the other contributions to this Forum are an important part of growing the knowledge base of our Favorite Feathered Friends – our beloved Amazons!





Enjoy!
 

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