Ornithology: Share and discuss scientific articles on parrots!

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Laurasea

Laurasea

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Because I had to search so hard for that article.
Here are examples of that in Pikachu
Red hue, sick
View attachment 38085
Normal
View attachment 38086
Its much more subtle in brown eyed birds like Ta-dah. This is her sick, notice tge darkness of her eye, plus the skin around her eye has darkened slightly or you might see a tint of pinkess all the way to red skin in some.
View attachment 38091
Here normal. No its not just the light. I'm not sure if I kept more examples. And the pictures were shared and discussed / confirmed with my avian vet at the time
View attachment 38094
once you have seen in person, you can tell better, the pupils become less distinct
O wish I knew how to also li k your Cotton update in this! Thank you for sharing his eye photos !

Eyes going dark, change in iris color difficulty in seeing pupil , red rimmed eyelids is a subtle ( or not so subtle depending on observations skilks) of systemic illness or sinus Inflammation, or eye injury/disease . Definitely take them to your avian veterinarian if you see this. Often it is associated with chlamydiosis. And they need medication to recover
 
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Laurasea

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Beak color article, talks about normal color changes with maturity in some species and an indicator of Inflammation and nutrition issues.
As we need every tool possible to pick up health issues in our parrots who will hide illnesses.
From below article
" Whether you have noticed a change in your parrots beak, or you are just curious, this article will discuss why parrots beaks change color, the healthy reasons why this occurs, and some of the possible problems that a change in beak color may be indicating including issues in their diet, damage to the beak, infection, or even aging."

More from above article
"
However, beak discoloration could also be caused by an infection.

An infection is recognized by a change in color, or a change in the beaks texture, and your birdโ€™s loss of appetite.

It is much easier to tell if a parrot as an infection if your bird has a light-colored beak because it is clearer to tell.


Brownish or black spots can be an indication of anything from mites, bacterial infection to cancer.

As with most things, if you are worried that your parrotโ€™s beak discoloration may be caused by an infection, mites, or even cancer, always bring them to see a veterinarian. "
 
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Cottonoid

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I found the same information; beak discoloration due to inflammation, illness, or malnutrition. Cotton's been dealing with all three! Hopefully he doesn't also have liver issues though.

For African Ringneck beak color differences between male and female - the female does generally have a darker beak.

african-ringneck-pair-breeding.jpg

p187_orig.png



(Photo credit - first photo from parrotfeather.com which has the best write up on ARN I found when researching in March; second photo from MajestatAviary.com whose page has one of my favorite ARN photos showing the length of their tail)
 
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Laurasea

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I found the same information; beak discoloration due to inflammation, illness, or malnutrition. Cotton's been dealing with all three! Hopefully he doesn't also have liver issues though.

For African Ringneck beak color differences between male and female - the female does generally have a darker beak.

View attachment 39820
View attachment 39821


(Photo credit - first photo from parrotfeather.com which has the best write up on ARN I found when researching in March; second photo from MajistatAviary.com whose page has one of my favorite ARN photos showing the length of their tail)
I just read that when researching baby beak color! I found they are born with light beaks and they darken to adult color with as you mentioned females having darker color beaks.

So I think was health issues making Cotton beak darker. Chlamydia does cause liver Inflammation. He is young and I don't think has enough time with poor diet to have permanent liver issues. The liver is remarkable regenerative.

Edit; I never see them mention head shape as identifying characteristics between ARN and IRN but I find it very noticeable!
 

Cottonoid

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I just read that when researching baby beak color! I found they are born with light beaks and they darken to adult color with as you mentioned females having darker color beaks.

So I think was health issues making Cotton beak darker. Chlamydia does cause liver Inflammation. He is young and I don't think has enough time with poor diet to have permanent liver issues. The liver is remarkable regenerative.

Edit; I never see them mention head shape as identifying characteristics between ARN and IRN but I find it very noticeable!

I think so too now that I'm more familiar with the two! ARN look more "squat" to me too, but maybe just in comparison to their tail.
 
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Laurasea

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Beak color article, talks about normal color changes with maturity in some species and an indicator of Inflammation and nutrition issues.
As we need every tool possible to pick up health issues in our parrots who will hide illnesses.
From below article
" Whether you have noticed a change in your parrots beak, or you are just curious, this article will discuss why parrots beaks change color, the healthy reasons why this occurs, and some of the possible problems that a change in beak color may be indicating including issues in their diet, damage to the beak, infection, or even aging."

More from above article
"
However, beak discoloration could also be caused by an infection.

An infection is recognized by a change in color, or a change in the beaks texture, and your birdโ€™s loss of appetite.

It is much easier to tell if a parrot as an infection if your bird has a light-colored beak because it is clearer to tell.


Brownish or black spots can be an indication of anything from mites, bacterial infection to cancer.

As with most things, if you are worried that your parrotโ€™s beak discoloration may be caused by an infection, mites, or even cancer, always bring them to see a veterinarian. "
So I can add another beak article
 

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Short article on bird respiratory systems that I found interesting:

 

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Short article on bird respiratory systems that I found interesting:


Great article, but it is also important to remember that where this group of chemicals becomes damage by scratches, those slivers combust at much lower temperatures. Again, Great Article.
 
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Laurasea

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Short article on bird respiratory systems that I found interesting:

Thanks for sharing!
I think something i did not see covered is surface area. Because birds airsacs extend throughout their body , their hollow bones. Its a huge surface area to have contact with air born toxin plus birds streamlined body mass . So they can get a much higher exposure. Birds are more sensitive to many airborne chemicals and toxins for the above reasons and from my college courses, and researched articles....
I didn't see science backing this ? Just opinion? Maybe I need to re read .. its early for me.

Re read. Author conclusion taken from their linked source...
"in general, birds are not automatically and predictable more sensitive to orally administered toxicants than comparably sized mammals."
This conclusion says oral! Not inhaled.
In the linked article the author quotes, if you read farther down
It goes on further down that page to say insufficient data to evaluate inhaled toxin. Invalidating the point the author was trying to make about burd respiratory systems!!!

Everything in the linked science still points to increased voluneability in birds to inhaled chemicals and irritants due to 20-80% times higher more gass exchange in bird than animals, their unique system, their high metabolism.. tge article talked about different species of birds a d different ages if birds effects. And said they should be included. For even better evaluate toxin

It really seems a person tried to cherry pick some science to attempt to back up their opinion that bird owners don't need to be so cautious with their birds. Maybe they have smokers, or want to use chemicals, or what motivation im unsure?

The take away from the science part. Birds are uniquely sensitive!!!! Only one Inhaled substance was mentioned less sensitive to.

To me this is a very dangerous opinion piece by the author!!!!!!
 
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PippTheBananaBirb

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Thanks for sharing!
I think something i did not see covered is surface area. Because birds airsacs extend throughout their body , their hollow bones. Its a huge surface area to have contact with air born toxin plus birds streamlined body mass . So they can get a much higher exposure. Birds are more sensitive to many airborne chemicals and toxins for the above reasons and from my college courses, and researched articles....
I didn't see science backing this ? Just opinion? Maybe I need to re read .. its early for me.
Re read.
"in general, birds are not automatically and predictable more sensitive to orally administered toxicants than comparably sized mammals."
This conclusion says oral! Not inhaled.
I think what it was trying to say is that toxins aren't necessarily dangerous because they're more "sensitive" but because their respiratory systems are different. So it's just saying that their respiratory system isn't problematic, but rather that they may be more sensitive to certain chemicals than us, and we may be more sensitive to certain chemicals than they are. I think the article is mostly about oral stuff. So what you're saying about chemicals being transmitted through their whole body is correct
 
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Laurasea

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I think what it was trying to say is that toxins aren't necessarily dangerous because they're more "sensitive" but because their respiratory systems are different. So it's just saying that their respiratory system isn't problematic, but rather that they may be more sensitive to certain chemicals than us, and we may be more sensitive to certain chemicals than they are. I think the article is mostly about oral stuff. So what you're saying about chemicals being transmitted through their whole body is correct
I've done a lot of editing to my reply.
Birds are more sensitive to inhaled ( gasses, toxins, chemicals) because of greater surface area, 80x higher gass exchange , high metabolic rate.

The author ( I didn't see name or credentials) motivation is very questionable, their reading comprehensive of their linked science is poor, or dilberatly deceptive. .

The article is claiming one thing , then switching to (oral) not respiratory or inhaled to back up their claim.

The article title is Are Birds Respiratory Systems Really more Sensitive!!!!
The answer is a resounding YES!!!!

Pip I'm glad you are taking an interest in science, and participating in the thread :)

It certainly highlights the need for carefully reading , and evaluating (opinion of unknown authors) not just accepting.

Because this was very misleading,
 
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Laurasea

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Feathers! In honor of Cotton
( was trying to find the length if time and stages of a single feather growth....not found yet)
But a very interesting article
 
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Feathers! In honor of Cotton
( was trying to find the length if time and stages of a single feather growth....not found yet)
But a very interesting article
@Cottonoid ;)
 
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Laurasea

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Nandays are often mentioned as carriers


 
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Always worth linking again
Excerpts from above linked article:

"The chemicals responsible for Teflon poisoning in parrots are called PFASs (per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances). PTFE and Teflon are examples of PFAS chemicals. Other chemicals in the same group include PFOA (perfluorooctanoic acid) and PFOS (perfluorooctanesulfonic acid). They can all emit fumes when heated and are all equally dangerous for parrots."

" Almost all pots and pans that are labeled as non-stick will contain one or more PFAS chemicals. Parrots and non-stick cookware donโ€™t mix unless the non-stick coating is made of PFAS-free enamel or ceramic."

Other sources mentioned in article
"

  • Non-stick baking trays, cookie sheets, and cake pans
  • Self-cleaning ovens
  • Waffle irons
  • Portable grills and stoves
  • Sandwich toasters
  • Air fryers
  • Bread machines
  • Rice cookers
  • Hot air popcorn makers
  • Coffee makers
  • Hair dryers
  • Clothes irons
  • Hair curling wands and straightening irons
  • Space heaters
  • Certain lightbulbs, such as heat lamps used to warm aquariums and reptile habitats
According to Environmental Science and Technology, some brands of microwave popcorn bags can also contain PFAS."
 
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Women in ornithology
Excerpts from above linked article:
" Women play such a visible role in ornithology (and most sciences) today, that it is easy to forget that women ornithologists were scarce before about 1960. Even those women who contriubuted to the history of ornithology tend to be relatively invisible."


20 years before Audubon!!!
Excerpt:
"Lady Elizabeth Gwillim painted a series of about 200 watercolours of Indian birds. Produced about 20 years before John James Audubonโ€™s famous illustrations, her work has been acclaimed for its accuracy and naturalism. Instead of working from skins, Elizabeth observed living birds in their natural environments."


sharman

T.J. Lafeber Avian Practitioner of the Year
Dr. Sharman Hoppes

Sharman Hoppes, DVM, Dipl. ABVP (Avian Practice) is the owner of Texas Avian & Exotic Hospital in Grapevine, Texas and Professor Emerita (2019- ) of the zoological medicine service at Texas A&M University (TAMU).
 
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